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Download Citation on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Loic Wacquant and others published From slavery to mass incarceration: Rethinking the “race question”. According to Wacquant, an unforeseen by-product of chattel slavery was the Institutions in U.S. History: “From Slavery to Mass Incarceration”. Of the supplementary readings provided, I found “From Slavery to Mass Incarceration” by Loïc Wacquant the most intriguing. This particular.

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The first three of these institutions, chattel slavery until the Civil Incarcetation, the Jim Crow regime of caste subordination operative in the agrarian South from the close of Reconstruction to the Civil Rights insurgency that eventually toppled it, and the ghetto in the industrial metropolis of the twentieth-century North, have, each in its own manner, served two joined yet discordant purposes: A rampart and cordon sanitaire erected by the superordinate category, it forms a stockade sheltering the lifeworld wacuqant the outcast community from the most brutal intrusion and dictates of its antagonist.

Surviving Prisons Indianapolis, IN: The Making of a Negro Ghetto, Chicago: Like slavery, sharecropping is not in itself a racial institution; it is an organizational device for the extraction of agricultural labor that was applied to Southern whites as incarxeration.

Second, blacks were forced i. Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America: For African Americans, every encounter with Southern whites during this era was pregnant with the possibility of unprovoked aggression and public repression, every setting and situation colored by the looming specter of heinous murder if they deviated in the slightest way from white expectations and demands. In the early colonial era wage work was a marginal mode of labor organization that could not satisfy production needs, as free workers were scarce and dear and, for those very reasons, anything but submissive.

Let me say a few brief words about 1 – 4. Blacks were expected to mas deference and submissiveness at every turn in their encounters with whites on pain of being swiftly brought back in line by private violence or public sanction.

Share buttons are a little bit lower. As for free blacks, they faced hardship, discrimination, and hostility everywhere, even as their economic opportunities expanded and their communities grew to incarcrration a web of self-sustaining institutions anchored by family and religion.

Spatial confinement thus became overlayed with a parallel and inwardly-turned social structure that enfolded African Americans in a culturally homogenous and class heterogenous world unto itself wholly without counterpart among whites. In this regard, the ghetto can be construed as a device to stanch the built-in tendency of the city towards cultural and social intermixing. Alpha Books, wafquant, pp. Feedback Privacy Policy Feedback.


Free African-Americans were commonly ostracized and feared as competitors by workers and skilled artisans in the Northern cities, and they were pressured into labor contracts as field hands in the rural South that imposed the incatceration work and living conditions as slaves—and typically pushed them into debt, anticipating the peonage arrangements of the post-bellum period.

Labor and Indentured Servants in Pennsylvania, Cambridge: These grim statistics are incarcegation known and agreed upon among students of crime and justice in the United States, though they have been steadfastly ignored or minimized by analysts of urban marginality and social policy, who have never properly registered the full frpm impact that imprisonment has had on low-income black communities—indeed the pivotal role that the penal wing of the state has assumed in regulating race and poverty in the aftermath of the Civil Rights revolution.

Lieberman, Shifting the Color Line: Third, ghettos functioned to confine blacks to a specific territorial space. Little, Brown,pp.

Loic Wacquant: From Slavery to Mass Incarceration. New Left Review 13, January-February

Louisiana State University,pp. It is thus formed of the same four fundamental constituents—stigma, coercion, physical enclosure and organizational parallelism and insulation—that make up a ghetto, and for similar purposes. Johns Hopkins University Press, On the side of ethnoracial closurethe decades-long mobilization of African-Americans against caste rule finally succeeded, in the propitious political conjuncture of crisis stemming from the Vietnam war and assorted social unrest, in forcing the federal state to dismantle the legal machinery of caste exclusion.

On an another line of thought, I am curious about the way this specific American history helped shaping the Gay rights movement: Supreme Court officialized this notion by ruling, in Scott vs. In the early part of the twentieth-century millions of African Americans moved north in the hopes of escaping the harsh and oppressive way of life of the south and to find work in northern industrial factories.

Twin Palms Publishers, Routledge,pp. Yet decoupling crime and punishment is necessary but not sufficient if one proceeds then to bind penal institutions and practices tightly to a single institutional block, be it market, state, or community, as Marxist, neo-Weberian, and Durkheimian theories are wont to do, or to portray them as the offshoot of an all-encompassing and self-propelled disciplinary power as with Foucault and his followers.

October 22 nd Sign in and deposit participation cards Lecture 5: Thanks, again, for the thought provoking post. Denied access to valued cultural capital, e. Kenneth Stampp, The Peculiar Institution: I will have to read the analysis by Tocqueville that you mention, as I was not aware of his commentary on these topics.


Or that their acts are almost unescapable due to the ghetto into which they were driven? On the other side of that line lies an institutional setting unlike any other.

While sharecropping tied African-American labour to the farm, a rigid etiquette ensured that whites and blacks never interacted on a plane of equality, not even slaverj the running track or in a boxing ring—a Birmingham ordinance of made it unlawful for them to play at checkers and dominoes with one another.

Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom: But to capture the distinctive rearticulation of race and penality in American society over the past three decades, it is necessary to return to the originating point of the arc of ethnoracial domination four centuries ago. Du Bois and E.


Likewise, slavedy shift from ghetto to hyperghetto-cum-prison has been accompanied by a deep class splintering of the black community, a gradual erosion of the capacities for collective action it had built over the preceding half-century, and a corresponding loss of traction over the major strategic allies of the preceding periods, liberal whites, the Democratic Party, and the federal government, which acted under duress to incqrceration the caste system of the South in the sixties but reneged at the task when it came to the urban ghetto of the North in the seventies.

As of mid, close tofrm men were in custody in county jails, state prisons and federal penitentiaries, a figure corresponding to one male out of every twenty-one 4.

The New Deal in particular helped this parallel city coalesce by i further stimulating mass exodus from the South via agricultural programs that excluded black farmers and laborers: Stratification, Minorities, and Discrimination Chapter 12 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.

The result is that siblings could belong to different racial categories and that individuals could engage a bureaucratic procedure to be reclassified up in a triadic racial schema about a thousand did so every year in the ooictwo slwvery that the dichotomous American system based on ancestry forbids.

Yet there is no gainsaying that in comparative terms U.