EO 12356 PDF

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This explanation of the development of E.O. originally appeared as an appendix to Annual Report to the President FY (Washington, D.C., ) by . The new National Security Information Executive Order issued by President Reagan on April 2, E.O. , includes a number of changes to Executive Order . Shortly after President Ronald Reagan issued E.O. on April 2, , general and of E.O. in particular with a view to reform

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First, the threshold standard for classification of information as “confidential” has been modified from “identifiable damage” to “damage. After 20 years, only an agency head could extend classification eeo then only in year increments. These additions, however, merely codify and clarify existing practice under the previous order and do not authorize classification of information that does not also meet other requirements.

These changes are designed to enhance the executive branch’s ability to protect national security information from unauthorized or premature disclosure without increasing the quantity of classified information.

But when, for 1235, an erroneous release is made to a single FOIA requester, this new provision provides the Government with needed flexibility that it did not have under the previous order.

Executive Order – Wikipedia

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Ro Policy. This unintended burden will be eliminated by the new order. It supersedes Executive Order No. The major focus is the idea that information should become declassified systematically as soon as practicable.

Steven Garfinkel, director of the General Services Administration’s Information Security Oversight Office and the person responsible for monitoring compliance with the ep order, says that the new order “keeps the lid on” the most important factors influencing the extent of classification:.

Of the systemic variables that do affect the number of classification decisions, the most relevant are the number of persons authorized to classify information and the quality of program oversight. In addition, the prohibition on classification of basic scientific research information not clearly related to the national security continues as under 1235.


They also recognize, however, the do critical need to protect certain sensitive information when disclosure would harm the security of all Americans. While the “balancing test” may be a laudable principle, including an explicit requirement in the executive order only invited others to substitute their judgment for that of executive branch officials possessed with the expertise and experience to exercise this responsibility.

Specific time limits are mentioned for different kinds of information, but there is also the provision that information that still needs to be classified can stay classified.

FOIA Update: Guest Article: An Overview of Executive Order 12356

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This order keeps the number of classifiers at its present total of approximately 7, persons worldwide, down percent from just a decade ago, and retains the requirements for effective internal and external monitorship and training. Due to the lapse in appropriations, Department of Justice websites will not be regularly updated.

As a component of the Obama Administration’s initiative to improve transparency and open-access to the Federal 13256 and the information it produces formally introduced upon taking office in late January [2] and as a result of an agency-wide review and recommendation process ordered in May of that same year, [3] the issuance of EO was ultimately prompted by several factors.

Executive Order National Security Information

In other projects Wikisource. Retrieved from ” so In addition to foreign government information and the identity of a confidential foreign source, unauthorized disclosure of intelligence sources and methods is also now presumed to cause damage to the national security. However, some litigants have contended that this language ep that the damage be of a particular type or degree in order to justify classification.

Wikisource has original text related to this article: National Archives and Records Administration, 5 January This order prescribes a uniform system for classifying, safeguarding, and declassifying Third, the classifying official must determine that unauthorized disclosure of the information could reasonably be expected to cause damage to the national security.


In conclusion, nothing in the new order is intended to permit the classification of additional material beyond that which was subject to classification under E.

Tampa Bay Times PolitiFact. Generally, however, it ties the duration of classification to the continued national security sensitivity of the information. The new order allows classifiers to continue to establish specific dates fo events for declassification where that is appropriate.

It is also noteworthy that the term “confidential source” is now defined in the executive fo, thus making clear that the identities of human sources who provide national security information to agencies outside the intelligence community should be protected through classification.

Executive Order also contains a number of less significant changes to the predecessor order. National Archives and Records Administration, Vol.

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First, the individual classifying the document must be authorized to do so. For example, under the order that is being replaced, classification activity increased approximately ten percent between FY ’79 and FY ’80, largely because of the Iranian hostage crisis.

This executive order was issued by President Clinton on April 17,and will take effect on October 14, Such determinations must also be reported to the Information Security Oversight Office, which continues to have Government-wide oversight of the information security program under the new order. The new order retains existing prohibitions against using classification to conceal violations of law, inefficiency or administrative error, or to prevent embarrassment, or delay the release of’ information that does not require protection in the interest of national security.