DECRETO 4476 DE 2007 PDF

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Seeds are black, flat, and triangular in shape, ca. When adding up the elasticity values corresponding to the same demographic processes, we observed a similar pattern in both sites: The other dots are different agave and cacti populations two populations of Agave marmorata ; two populations of Mammillaria crucigera ; M.

Such behavior has also been observed in Agave marmorataand 207 the cacti Neobuxbaumia macrocephalaN. Agave angustifolia has a relatively widespread geographic distribution, spanning from northern Mexico to southern Costa Rica. Materials and methods Study species.

We followed the fate of individuals from dwcreto year to the next and built two Lefkovitch matrices. We also wanted to gain a deeper understanding of the factors that affect these processes xe natural conditions i. Additionally, Agave angustifolia plants are sometimes harvested for mezcal production in the area. Finally, we obtained the probability of seed germination termed G and seedling survival in the field termed P from the summer of up to May from the field experiments described above, for each site.

Some of these studies have addressed the effect of disturbance on population dynamics, and have noted that they tend to be either negative or nil. The highest mortality was observed in the first size category in both sites, but it was substantially higher in Xochicalco than in Tembembe Table 2.

Chapman and Hall, Cambridge. Fibras duras de Agave ixtle: Several agaves show mast seeding years in which many individuals reproduce, followed by years in which only a few individuals reproduce Arizaga and Ezcurra and was not a mast seeding year for Agave angustifolia. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients.


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In addition, demographic variation through time in Agave populations may also reflect variation in inflorescence removal for mezcal production.

Although generally speaking these ecosystems house a lower biological diversity than tropical rain forests Gentryin some areas they have equal or even higher plant diversity than some moist forests Hubell ; Gentry ; ; Janzen The most common shrub species are Lantana hispida and Acacia farnesiana. Prospective and retrospective analyses showed that stasis and growth contributed most to population growth rate and that the differences between the two populations were accounted for a lower fecundity and stasis in Xochicalco compared to Tembembe.

Part of the Tembembe site 97 ha was protected by a fence in ; thus, the fenced area has been free of cattle and the vegetation has been recovering since then. The information contained in a matrix reflects the population dynamics driven by births and deaths only, ignoring migration in a specific time period, and the projection of this behavior through time assumes that it remains constant, which is clearly an unrealistic assumption.

In Tembembe we collected 17 fruits from two individuals and in Xochicalco 29 fruits from three individuals. Also, important differences between sites were observed with regard to reproduction. Of course, their exploitation would have to be strictly regulated to make sure that extracted plants are replaced with new individuals, and that the genetic variation of populations is maintained, as in other areas the introduction of vegetative propagules from limited genetic sources has caused the loss of genetic variation Eguiarte et al.

Análisis demográfico de Agave angustifolia (Agavaceae) con énfasis en la restauración ecológica

Even if these results correspond to a single yearly period, it was a year in which the number of reproductive individuals was particularly low. Journal of Arid Environments Considering all of the above, some species in the Agave L.

We base this suggestion on the high seed germination percentage, seedling survival probability and population growth rate obtained in the disturbed site, which imply that the population is barely affected by the high disturbance level which characterizes the area. We built Lefkovitch matrices and carried 44476 prospective elasticity and retrospective Life Table Response Experiments analyses for both populations.

  JIS G3444 PDF

In Mexico, of the ca. Note the differences dcereto the scale of the y axis between plots. Therefore, restoration programs seem the appropriate option for these situations. Restoration ecology is based on the idea that ecological succession may be assisted to reestablish ecosystem functioning including species composition, biotic interactions, and ecosystem processes to a point in which it resembles the pre-disturbance conditions, particularly where this is not happening naturally Luken 0207 Noss ; Lamb In mast-seeding years the population growth rate should be considerably higher.

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In addition to survival and growth data, we also recorded reproduction. Our numerical simulations suggest that the introduction of Agave angustifolia plants would be a successful strategy to boost population growth rate at Tembembe.

Similarly, most of the contributions referring to vegetative spread were positive in Xochicalco, and negative in Tembembe, except for a 4,5 Figure 6. Chapman and Hall, New York. Thus, matrix analysis offers a description of the potential behavior of the studied population if the present demographic conditions were to remain constant over time i.

Df, most stress-tolerant plants are relatively slow growing Lamb et decfeto. Inflorescences are produced from January to May; they are paniculate, m tall, and bear greenish-yellow flowers.

The Agave angustifolia population studied at this 0207 was within this cattle exclusion. The results of these analyses will throw light into the population processes that are relevant for restoration and that would increase the likelihood of success of future restoration programs based on this species.

Finally, the effect of microsite and seedling age were marginally significant: