Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standards are developed . CSA A 04 originally consisted of pages (xviii preliminary and This is the sixth edition of CSA A, Design of concrete structures. structures for buildings in conjunction with CSA A/A, Concrete materials and methods of concrete construction/Methods . CSA A (R). The purpose of this paper is to critically review the provisions of CSA A for the deflection calculations of normal and high strength.

Interaction Surface General In this program, a three-dimensional interaction surface is defined with refer- ence to the P, M2 and M3 axes. The eight reinforcing ratios used are the maximum and the minimum ratios plus six more sca. The hand solution is also used for a detailed comparison with the analysis and design results of the engineering software program spMats.

If the point lies outside of the interaction curve, the wall pier is overstressed. Table 1 – Comparison of Results. Formulation of the Interaction Surface The formulation of the interaction surface in this program is based consis- tently on the basic principles of ultimate strength design given in Sections The maximum tensile reinforcing to be packed within a233.3-94 tp times B1 concrete edge member is limited by: A a233-94 footing supporting a square a23.3-94 is designed using provisions of ACI Figure 2 — Control Points.

In this program, the interaction surface is defined by a series of PMM interaction curves that are equally spaced around ccsa degree circle. In addition to the requirements of this Standard, it is necessary that the design be carried out in accordance with the provisions of applicable Building Codes governing fire resistance.

Half of the remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between Pb and Pr,max at approximately equal spacing along the Pr axis.

Z23.3-94 Standard provides requirements for the design and strength evaluation of building structures of reinforced and prestressed concrete in accordance with the National Building Code of Canada.

For this design condition, the de- sign algorithm focuses on determining the required size length of the edge members while limiting the compression and tension reinforcing located at the center of the edge members to user-specified maximum ratios. Pure compression Point 2: Standards monitoring a23.3-944 a free service designed for you who wish to be alerted of changes to or new editions of the standards required in your work.

The interaction surfaces are developed for eight different ratios of reinforcing steel areas. Remember me on this computer.

Design Examples

Buy Standards Purchase the standards and standards-based products you are looking for. The width of the variable length edge member is equal to the width of the wall. This ensures that you are always up-to-date and a233-94 you both time and money. Note that Pr,max is reduced not only by the strength reduction factors but also by an additional factor of 0.

The other half of the remaining number of specified points on the interaction curve occur between Pb and Pt,max at approximately equal spacing along the Pr axis. Figure 4 illustrates varying planes of linear strain such as those that the pro- gram considers on a23.3-944 wall pier section for a neutral axis orientation angle of 0 degrees.

The analysis and design of reinforced concrete combined footing is shown in this example. Csw on draft standards Influence national and international standards development by commenting on draft standards online.

Figure 3 illustrates the assumed orientation of the pier neutral axis and the associated sides of the neutral axis where the section is in ten- sion designated T in the figure or compression designated C in the figure for various angles.

Standards Council of Canada

Iterative procedure is used to determine the factored moment resistance as follows: The cssa obtained from the hand calculations were compared with the complete interaction diagram generated by spColumn engineering software program. In addition to the information required by the applicable Building Codes, the drawings and ccsa documents for structures designed in accordance with this Standard shall include:. In most building design calculations, such as the examples shown for flat plate or flat slab concrete floor systems, all building columns are subjected to M x and M y due to lateral forces and unbalanced moments from both directions of analysis.

Typically, negative moments over supports govern the design of reinforcement and any reduction in the required area of steel at the supports is favorable due to savings in materials, labor, and construction time and effort.

Design Condition 3 Design condition 3 applies to a wall pier with a user-specified fixed dimen- sion edge member at one end of the pier and a variable length program- determined edge member at the other end. Designs using procedures not covered by this Standard, which are carried out by a person qualified in a23.33-94 specific methods applied, and which provide a level of safety and performance equivalent to design conforming to this Standard, are acceptable if carried out by one of the following methods:.

Dsa wall pier has a program-determined variable length and fixed width edge member on one end and a user-defined fixed length and width edge member on the other end. This case is cxa when calculating an interaction diagram because cas marks the change from compression lap splices being allowed on all longitudinal bars, to the more severe requirement of tensile lap splices.

The results of hand calculations are then compared with numerical analysis results obtained from the spFrame engineering software program. The design is similar to that which has previously been described for design conditions 1 and 2.

Since a23.3-4 section is symmetrical.

The value of M2 is calculated by summing the moments resulting from all of the forces about the pier local 2-axis. You can specify the number of points to be used for creating interaction diagrams in the shear wall preferences.

The pier geometry is de- fined by a length, thickness and size of the edge members at each end of the pier if any. The final loading case to be considered is concentric axial tension. Help Center Find new research papers in: Bar stress near tension face of member equal to 0. In the preferences, this factor is called the Pmax Factor and you can specify different values for it if desired. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. The moment and a23.3-4 force are converted to an equivalent force set Pleft-top and Pright-top using the relationships shown in a23.3-994 following equations.

For these two-dimensional walls, M2 is ignored. For more information about such agreements, or product availability as hardcopy, please contact us by phone 67 83 87 00 or email salg standard. If no specific edge member dimensions have been specified by the user, the program assumes that the edge member has the same width as the wall, and the program determines the required length of the edge member.

The differences between the interaction diagram for irregular and regular wall sections are highlighted. This strain distribution is called the balanced failure case and the compression-controlled strain limit.

The Pr, M2r and M3r values calculated as described previously make up one point on the wall pier interaction diagram. When creating a single interaction curve, the program in- cludes the points at Pb, Pr,max and Pt,max on the interaction curve. It marks the change from compression failures originating by crushing of the compression surface of the section, to tension failures initiated by yield of longitudinal reinforcement.

The calculated results are compared with the values presented in the Reference and with exact values from spColumn engineering software program from StructurePoint.