The Classic Piano Course Book 1: Starting To Play Books | Piano; The Classic Pieces include Fur Elise, Swan Lake and music by the author Carol Barratt. Carol Barratt’s Classic Piano Course is ideal for adults or gifted younger beginners wishing to learn at a faster pace. Book 1 introduces the keyboard, note . The Classic Piano Course Book 1 by Carol Barratt, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
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The Classic Piano Course
Lynn Bentham rated it really liked it Jul 11, One person found this helpful. Buy the selected items together This item: Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. English Choose a language for shopping. Share your thoughts with other curse. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways fourse order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers.
Learn more about Amazon Prime. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? Discover Prime Book Box for Kids. The course is based on familiar favorites from the classical repertoire, themes from opera and ballet, folksongs and blues, music by baratt classical composers, and original pieces by Carol Barratt herself.
Whether you’re learning from scratch, or starting again, these three books will guide you gently into the pleasure of piano playing.
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There are no discussion topics on this book yet. Refresh and try again. Graham Triggs marked it as to-read Mar 05, The Classic Piano Course Book 2: Thanks for telling us about cuorse problem. I like the music in this but I would not buy it for an absolute beginner.
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The Classic Piano Course by Carol Barratt
Classic Piano Course Book 1 Paperback: Fourse, Theory, Technic, Sight Reading. The Classic Piano Course Book 3: Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Explore the Home Gift Guide.
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Het formulier voor een Europese ‘overschrijvingsopdracht’. 2. Aanpassingen Belgisch SEPA overschrijvingsformulier (90% van de ware grootte) . rekeningnummers moeten in de vakjes worden ingevuld zonder blanco’s;. Please, help me to find this blanco europees overschrijvingsformulier pdf writer. I’ ll be really very grateful. Overschrijvingsformulieren. Blanco europees overschrijvingsformulier pdf file. Started by: inmebwk in: Amescon Forum. 1; 1; 59 minutes ago · inmebwk · Mastering chibi.
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Buy Sri Srinivasa Gadyam / Sri Lakshmi Gadyam Music Audio CD only for Rs. from Only Genuine Products. 30 Day Replacement Guarantee. gadyams such as SrI RaghuvIra gadyam of Swamy Desikan (http:// www. ), SrInivAsa gadyam, Lakshmi gadyam, SrI VedAnta. 1. Sri Lakshmi Gadyam. 2. Kanakadara Stothram. 3. Mangalya Vivruddi Stotram. 4. Ashtalakshmi Stotram. 5. Sri Lakshmi Ashotram.
Naaraayaniiya m Comprises of Dashakas. Muulamantrapratipaaditaa Ashtottarashatanaamaavali names extracted from Muulamantram.
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Kaarya Siddhi stotras from Laakshmi Ranganaatha Padukaaa sahasram. Hayagriiva Stotram Another Version from Shataduushanii.
In the Middle Ages people were well aware of the inexhaustible power that arises simply from sitting still. After that time, knowledge of the. The Nondual Wisdom of Karlfried Graf Durckheim. Jul 19, Enjoy this rare documentary on the teachings of Karlfried Graf Durckheim, which includes some . Steiner, and the primary biography of Karlfried Graf Durckheim. Karlfried. Graf Durckheim, who died at the age of 92 in December of , is a beacon for.
The therapist is not the one who heals, that is, who intervenes with his own skills; he is a therapist in the original meaning of the word: December 6, at 9: An integral concept in this self-understanding is referred to as “The Wheel of Metamorphosis.
In this lies the dignity of daring. Note to the reader: Durckheim identifies this center as a state wherein a person moves continuously toward his innermost nature. After the war, Tokyo was occupied by the Americans. Part of a series on. The English version is available exclusively on the web site of Nottingham Publishing, as is also Becoming Real: Only 1 left in stock – order soon. But to achieve this, we need to have the courage to meet the karlfreid, and to “endure the mystery that cannot be conceptually comprehended–in short, to pause and inwardly dwell in that to which we are all too unaccustomed, the radiance of Divine Being.
Essays on the Teachings of a Master, Nottingham Publishing, I was listening and lightning went through me. Mystics, philosophers, saints, and esotericists of all times have pointed to these radiant moments drxkheim proof that we are meant to be more than we seem to be.
The Vital Center of Man Oct 27, AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. But Durckheim is especially insistent on the body as a key to breaking through to a greater consciousness.
The Wheel of Transformation: Karlfried Graf Durckheim’s method of spiritual awakening
He posited three stages and five steps in kadlfried cycle: Learn more about Amazon Prime. In he became a professor at the Medical Academy of Breslau.
Daily Life as Spiritual Exercise. First Regulation November 14, ; Article 2 states “An individual of mixed Jewish blood is one who is descended from one or two grandparents who were racially full Jews As a thank you for signing up, you’ll receive a video we produced that is unavailable anywhere else on the Internet.
The impending surrender of Germany led him to reconsider his values, however.
Karlfried Graf Dürckheim Quotes (Author of Hara)
Traditions Dharma transmission Zen lineage charts Zen ranks and hierarchy Zen organisation and institutions Zen Narratives. In that state you can finally experience the perfect enjoyment of the unity inherent in it.
High to Low Drdkheim. University of KielPh.
He offers no theory, no cosmology, no religious philosophy. Views Read Edit View history. Daily Life as Spiritual Exercise London: It involves both the pulling-down of everything that stands in the way of our contact with Divine Being, and the building-up of a ‘form’ which, by remaining accessible to its inner life, preserves this contact and affirms it in every activity in the world.
What matters is, first and foremost, our seeking spirit. There’s a problem loading this menu right now. Email required Address never made public.
“Levels.” 6 Apr. ?M=/main_pages/levels. html. “Einbürgerungstest: Fragenkatalog zue Testvorbereitung. Interaktiver Fragenkatalog zum Test “Leben in Deutschland” · Interaktiver Musterfragebogen zum Test Einbürgerungstest “Leben in Deutschland” (BAMF ). Quote. Postby first» Tue Aug 28, am. Please, help me to find this orientierungskurs fragen pdf to jpg. I’ll be really very grateful.
I heard that from this month onwards, it is not possible to withdraw the amount till 67yrs.
Although Germany has taken significant steps toward liberalizing its citizenship laws, there are still some important restrictions in place including limited dual-citizenship. Gesamtfragenkatalog Orientierungskurs Politik Geschichte Kultur The naturalization test consists of 33 questions 17 of which must be answered correctly in order to pass.
Alle 300 Fragen und Antworten zum Einbürgerungstest der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Seite 2
If you have any demat and trading accounts in India, get them converted from resident to non-resident. Great thanks in advance!
Finally, when you give up tstvorbereitung Indian citizenship, all is not lost forever. Technically trstvorbereitung are right.
Orientierungskurs Politik Geschichte Kultur. Use the comments area below to write your comments, queries, opinions, experience. OCI is necessary if you still want to keep a connection with India more than as a tourist!
Here are a couple example questions with their answers: As time went on, however, it became increasingly clear that jus sanguinis was not the appropriate model for Germany.
A definitive guide to German citizenship and OCI for Indians – EU Indians
Out of the 33, you have to get 17 or more correct. Ein Familien unternehmen seit The criteria is continuous stay in India for 12 month and readiness to renounce your German citizenship.
Here’s an example how the application form looks like and what information you need to provide. No registered users and 9 guests.
Zuordnung der Themengebiete und den Testfragen Politik in der Many thanks for your efforts, you have really created a versy comprehensive document. The rule says that if you are no more liable to pay your social security contribution and lived outside of Germany in a non-member country, you can request for the refund of your social security contribution.
I’ll be really very grateful. After you have completed the application form and gathered all the required documents for all applicants, you can submit your file. However my marriage date is fixed by Decmy query is 1 can I still marry without any extra documentation in india to an Indian after receiving my einburgerungkunde? Sources Bundesministerium des Innern. Post was not sent – check your email addresses!
Alle Fragen mit Antworten. To find out more, including how to control cookies, see here: Alle bundeseinheitlichen Fragen. Help me to find this orientierungskurs fragen pdf to jpg. You are commenting using your WordPress. This could be a significant amount over the years.
ORDER AND BUY THE REQUEST tax exemption YOUR CASH REGISTER, ALL MODELS OFFER VALID ONLY FOR THE MARCHE REGION. In stock. Epson FP81 II mm. Product no.: Epson FP81 II mm. Be the first to rate this product. In stock can be shipped within 5 days. Possible delivery method. Επιστρέψτε στις επιλογές υποστήριξης για Epson FP Greek sample. Εκτύπωση Print a Windows Test Page from the General tab of the Epson driver.
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Conflict is inevitable, in both deals and disputes. Yet when clients call in the lawyers to haggle over who gets how much of the pie, traditional hard-bargaining . Observing that today’s tough, adversarial legal negotiations preempt mutually beneficial problem solving between parties, Mnookin (director of the Harvard. Summary of Beyond Winning By Robert H. Mnookin Summary written by Conflict Research Consortium Staff Citation: Robert H. Mnookin, Scott R. Peppet and.
Too often, deals blow up, cases don’t settle, relationships fall apart, justice is delayed. Inevitably, it will move lawyers into a new paradigm of thinking about higher-quality solutions in negotiation and mediation, and about how to achieve the best possible results for their clients. This book serves the solicitors a good food of thought on all these aspects.
Beyond Winning: Negotiating to Create Value in Deals and Disputes by Robert Mnookin
Want to Read Currently Reading Read. The heart of the book is in Part III where the authors lay out how to negotiate with “a problem-solving approach”.
Amy rated it really liked it Feb 02, The Intractable Conflict Challenge Find out what you can do to help society more constructively handle the intractable conflicts that are making so many problems insoluble.
Beyons About Beyond Winning: Thanks for telling us about the problem.
Yet when clients call in the lawyers to haggle over who gets how much of the pie, traditional hard-bargaining tactics can lead to ruin. Refresh and try again. It offers a fresh look at negotiation, aimed at helping lawyers turn disputes into deals, and deals into better deals, through practical, tough-minded problem-solving techniques.
It off Conflict is inevitable, in mnoo,in deals and disputes.
PeppetAndrew S. It focuses on both sides of the story in trying to find mutual gains and offers insightful frameworks for the tension between a lawyer and client or between being empathetic and assertive. Clayton Christenson rated it really liked it Feb 02, Beyond Winning captures the most important theoretical economic and social science material and uses vivid examples to demonstrate techniques for using theoretical insights in practice.
A lot of the principles discussed here is not just for lawyers or diplomats or labor mmnookin. I don’t have a sanguinary temperament This book makes the case that a problem-solving approach to negotiation offers the most promising means of creating value.
This book helps them to make a more conscious choice. It’s a very popular and valuable course–and this book deals with some of the techniques at the heart of it.
The digital Loeb Classical Library loebclassics. Join Our Mailing List: This approach is not initially directed to the substance of the dispute or transaction, but rather to the nature and structure of the negotiation process that the parties might together design… This is a book for everyone who negotiates—a universe that includes all of us. Liebman, Columbia Law School. The book’s goal is to help lawyers and their clients work winnkng and negotiate deals and disputes more effectively.
Summary of “Beyond Winning”
His nonsense books, mo …. Lauren McClees rated it really liked it Mar 03, Conflict is inevitable, in both deals and disputes.
Tell us about your work. Beyond Winning winnibg longer, more technical, and much more geared to the lawyer. Lists with This Book. It talks about such techniques and strategies as focusing on interests, inventing options–and knowing your BATNA. Check out our Quick Start Guide or Video.
Beyond Winning – Robert H. Mnookin, Scott R. Peppet, Andrew S. Tulumello – Google Books
This is a must-read book for solicitors. Colleague Activities Find out about the intractable conflict-related work that others in the peace and conflict field are doing. Jnookin 17, Kristof Verbeke rated it it was amazing. In this step-by-step guide to conflict resolution, the authors describe the many obstacles that can derail a legal negotiation, both behind the bargaining table with one’s own client and across the table with the other side. Saad Alabdulwahed rated it liked it Nov 28, Mnookin Limited preview – Subscribe to receive information about forthcoming books, seasonal catalogs, and more, in newsletters tailored to your interests.
It shares that common ground with Getting to Yes. The goal should not be to win the biggest piece of the pie but to make the pie bigger! Explanations of how the conflict and peacebuilding wihning fundamental building blocks can help with both intractable and tractable conflicts. People who hire lawyers must help change the game from conflict to collaboration.
Frotis sanguíneo de perdiz. Se observan abundantes eritrocitos nucleados y algunos leucocitos @ Anisocromía: consiste en eritrocitos de diferentes colores. Fenómeno de Roleaux : hematíes en pilas de moneda. Eritroblastos: eritrocitos nucleados (hematíes. La hemólisis microangiopática con glóbulos rojos fragmentados y eritrocitos nucleados se considera de valor diagnóstico. La hipoglucemia no debe orientar al.
Anemia en el anciano y su tratamiento [Internet]. Chiappe G, Crisp R. Calle 51 A y ave 5 de septiembre. Hallazgo de linfopenia incidental [Internet]. Nelson Rafael Terry Leonard.
Translation of “eritrocitos nucleados circulantes” in English
Mosby Elsevier; Estas anemias se presentan con frecuencia en el adulto mayor. Departamento de Medicina; Alphen aan den Rijn: Hematologic complications of alcohol use [Internet].
Esta anemia se observa con frecuencia en el anciano por sangrado digestivo. Reporte de un caso. ABSTRACT The study of smear of peripheral blood consists on specifying and informing the morphological alterations of blood elements; This is a simple, inexpensive, quick exam in reporting its results, but at the same time requires much erifrocitos and experience, given the time and interest that is devoted to its learning, the quality of the extension and its staining.
Facultad de Medicina; [citado Mar 23]. Reporting and grading of abnormal red blood cell morphology.
Farreras Valenti P, Rozman C. Int J LabHem [revista en Internet].
eritrocits En general se manifiesta con anemia, neutropenia o trombocitopenia persistentes o diferentes combinaciones de estos.
Hospital General Universitario Dr. Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostic. An Med Interna Madrid [revista en Internet]. Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina de Estados Unidos. Generalmente existen varias causas de anemia en el anciano. NCI; [citado 21 Abr ]. Frotis de sangre [Internet]. Manzoni D, Sujobert P. Facultad de Medicina; [citado 4 May ]. Anemias of Chronic disease, peripheral blood smear [Internet].
Importancia del estudio del frotis de sangre periférica en ancianos
Pueden observarse eritrocitos nucleados. Medscape [revista en Internet].
Revista Ciencias de la Salud. Madoff L, Kasper DL.
Medical Center; [citado 9 Jun ]. Consideraciones generales referentes a las alteraciones de los leucocitos en las enfermedades bacterianas 4,34, Diagnosis of bacteremia on a Blood smear.
IntraMed; [citado 9 Mar ]. Examination of the Blood and Bone Marrow.
Eritrocito – Wikipedia, a enciclopedia libre
Anemia y otras causas. El laboratorio en las enfermedades infecciosas. We present a literature review describing the variations of the peripheral lamina that can occur in diseases that most frequently affect the elderly, with the objective of offering nulceados material for teaching residents of Hematology and Geriatrics. Atlas of peripheral blood. Wolters Kluwer; [citado 6 Mar ]. Cienfuegos, Cuba medisur infomed.
clinica bien reconocida, no se tiene aun definicion totalmente satisfactoria. Antihistaminicos no ayudan Eicosanoides: cicloxigenasa. Eicosanoides tromboxanos. X. X. X: inhibición por antiinflamatorios no esteroideos. Page ▫ Prostaglandinas: ▫ Se descubrieron en la glándula prostática. oxidación de ácidos grasos específicos, catabolismo de poliaminas, prostaglan- dinas, eicosanoides y en la biosíntesis de esteroles y plasmalógenos (que.
The head-regeneration transcriptome of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Background Planarian flatworms can regenerate their head, including a functional brain, within less than a week. Despite the enormous potential defnicion these animals for medical research and regenerative medicine, the mechanisms of regeneration and the molecules involved remain largely unknown.
Results To identify genes that are differentially expressed during early stages of planarian head regeneration, we generated a de novo transcriptome assembly from more than million paired-end reads from planarian fragments regenerating the head at 16 different time points.
The assembly yielded 26, putative transcripts, including very long transcripts spanning multiple genomic eicosanoidws, and thousands of isoforms. Using short-read data from two platforms, we analyzed dynamic gene regulation during the first three days of head regeneration. We identified at least five different temporal synexpression classes, including genes specifically induced within a few hours after injury.
Furthermore, we characterized the role of a conserved Runx transcription factor, smed-runt-like1. RNA interference RNAi knockdown and immunofluorescence analysis of the regenerating visual system indicated that smed-runt-like1 encodes a transcriptional regulator of eye morphology and photoreceptor patterning. Conclusions Transcriptome sequencing of short reads allowed for the simultaneous de novo assembly and differential expression analysis of transcripts, demonstrating highly dynamic regulation during head regeneration in planarians.
Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Melanins are ubiquitous and biologically important pigments, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate their synthesis and biochemical composition are not fully understood. Here we present a study that supports a role for serotonin in melanin synthesis in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.
We characterize the tryptophan hydroxylase tph gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, and demonstrate by RNA interference that tph is essential for melanin production in the pigment cups of the planarian photoreceptors. We exploit this phenotype to investigate the biological function of pigment cups using a quantitative light-avoidance behavioral assay. Planarians lacking eye pigment remain phototactic, indicating that eye pigmentation is not essential for light avoidance in S.
Finally, we show that the eye pigmentation defect observed in tph knockdown animals can be rescued by injection of either the product of Eicosanoidws, 5-hydroxytryptophan 5-HTP, or serotonin. Together, these results highlight a role for serotonin in melanogenesis, perhaps as a regulatory signal or as a pigment substrate. To our knowledge, this is the first example of this relationship defnicion be reported outside of mammalian systems.
Neoblast Specialization in Regeneration of the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Full Text Available Planarians can regenerate any missing body part in a process requiring dividing cells called neoblasts. Historically, neoblasts have largely been considered a homogeneous stem cell population.
Most studies, however, analyzed neoblasts at the population rather than the single-cell level, leaving the degree of heterogeneity in this population unresolved.
We combined RNA sequencing of neoblasts from wounded planarians with expression screening and identified 33 transcription factors transcribed in specific differentiated cells and in small fractions of neoblasts during regeneration. Many neoblast subsets expressing distinct tissue-associated transcription factors were present, suggesting candidate specification into many lineages. Together, these results suggest that specification of cell eicoasnoides for most-to-all eicosanoidee lineages occurs within neoblasts, with regenerative cells of blastemas being generated from a highly heterogeneous collection of lineage-specified neoblasts.
The ovary of the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has been studied for the first time using both light and electron microscopy methods. The ultrastructure of the ovary revealed two types of cells: Initially, oogonia underwent cytoplasm growth due to the development of organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, eicpsanoides mitochondria, which are all involved in the production of cytoplasmic inclusions or yolk globules.
It is shown that the chromatoid body and fibrogranular aggregates may participate in the synthesis of vitelline inclusions. When completely mature, the oocytes have become larger, due to the accumulation of nutritive inclusions, which are round in shape and have a paracrystalline structure. These inclusions are interpreted as being yolk globules and may represent a kind of nutritive material for the developing embryo. These ultrastructural features of the ovary agree with the available phylogenetic tree, based on morphological and karyological characters that considers Schmidtea group as a genus and not a subgenus.
The presence of sperm between the oocytes suggests that fertilization may occur within the ovary, representing an uncommon condition within the Triclads, in which fertilization usually takes places outside of the ovaries. Published by Elsevier SAS. Identification refinicion multiple isomeric core chitobiose-modified high-mannose and paucimannose N-glycans in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.
Cell surface-associated glycans mediate many cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, signaling, and extracellular matrix organization. The galactosylation of core fucose GalFuc epitope in paucimannose and complex-type N -glycans is characteristic of protostome organisms, including flatworms planarians. Although uninvestigated, the structures of these glycans may play deflnicion role in planarian regeneration.
Di- and trigalactosylated core fucoses were the most dominant glycomers. N -Glycans showed extensive, yet selective, methylation patterns, ranging from non-methylated to polymethylated glycoforms.
Although the majority of glycoforms were polymethylated, a small fraction also consisted of non-methylated glycans. Remarkably, monogalactosylated core fucose remained unmethylated, whereas its polygalactosylated forms were methylated, indicating structurally selective methylation. The presence of two GALT-1 homologs suggests different requirements for ficosanoides and polygalactosylation of core fucose for the formation of multiple isomers.
Furthermore, we observed variations in core fucose glycosylation patterns in different planarian strains, suggesting evolutionary adaptation in fucose glycosylation. These results contribute greatly to our understanding of N -glycan biosynthesis and suggest the presence of a. The miR family of microRNAs is crucial for regeneration of the brain and visual system in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.
Brain regeneration in planarians is mediated by precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression and is crucial for multiple aspects of neurogenesis.
However, the mechanisms underpinning the gene regulation essential for brain regeneration are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the miR family of microRNAs in planarian brain regeneration.
The miR family miR is highly conserved in animals and regulates neurogenesis by facilitating neural differentiation, yet its role in neural wiring and brain organization is not known.
We developed a novel method for eocosanoides anti-miRs using liposomes for the functional knockdown of microRNAs. Smed-miR knockdown revealed a key role for these microRNAs in neuronal organization during planarian brain regeneration.
Eicosanoides by Noel Andino Paz on Prezi
Our results also demonstrated an essential role for miR in the generation of eye progenitors. Additionally, miR regulates Smed-slit-1which encodes an axon guidance protein, either by targeting slit-1 mRNA or, potentially, by modulating the canonical Notch pathway. Together, our results reveal eicoosanoides role for miR in regulating the regeneration of a functional brain and visual system. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schmidtea mediterranea Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Continenticola is found in scattered localities on a few islands and in coastal areas of the western Mediterranean.
Its present distribution has been proposed to stem from the fragmentation and migration of the Corsica-Sardinia microplate during the formation of the western Mediterranean basin, which implies an ancient origin for the species. To test this hypothesis, we obtained a large number of samples from across its distribution area. Using known and eicosanoifes molecular markers and, for the first time in planariansa molecular clock, we analysed the genetic variability and demographic parameters within the species and between its sexual and asexual populations to estimate when they diverged.
Molecular data clustered the studied populations into three groups that correspond to the west, central and southeastern geographical locations of the current distribution of S. Mitochondrial genes show low haplotype and nucleotide diversity within populations but demonstrate higher values when all individuals are considered. The nuclear marker shows higher values of genetic diversity than the mitochondrial genes at the population level, but asexual populations present lower variability than the sexual ones.
Neutrality tests are significant for some populations.
Phylogenetic and dating analyses show the three groups to be monophyletic, with the west group being the basal group. The repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the model organism Schmidtea mediterranea. Full Text Definucion Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors GPCRs constitute one of the largest groupings of eukaryotic proteins, and represent a particularly lucrative set of pharmaceutical targets.
They play an important role in eukaryotic signal transduction and physiology, mediating cellular responses to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli. The phylum Platyhelminthes is of considerable medical and biological importance, housing major pathogens as well as established model organisms.
The recent availability of genomic defijicion for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and the model planarian Schmidtea mediterranea paves the way for the first comprehensive effort to identify and eicosanoide GPCRs in this important phylum.
Results Application of a novel transmembrane-oriented approach to receptor mining led to the discovery of S. Among these, we report the identification of novel receptor groupings, eicosaoides a large and highly-diverged Platyhelminth-specific Rhodopsin subfamily, a planarian -specific Adhesion-like family, and atypical Glutamate-like receptors.
Phylogenetic analysis was carried out following extensive gene curation. Support vector machines SVMs were trained and used for ligand-based classification of full-length Rhodopsin GPCRs, complementing phylogenetic and homology-based classification. Conclusions Genome-wide investigation of GPCRs in two platyhelminth genomes reveals an extensive and complex receptor signaling repertoire with many unique features. This work provides important sequence and functional leads for understanding basic flatworm receptor biology, and sheds light on a lucrative set of anthelmintic definicoon targets.
Nuclear receptors NRsor nuclear hormone receptors NHRsare transcription factors that regulate development and metabolism of most if not all animal species. Their regulatory networks include conserved mechanisms that are shared in-between species as well as mechanisms that are restricted to certain phyla or even species. The derived amino acid sequence shows a high degree of conservation of both DNA-binding domain and ligand- binding domain and a remarkably high homology to vertebrate NR2E1 and C.
Quantitative PCR detected approximately ten-fold higher expression of Smed-tlx-1 in the proximal part of the head compared to the tail region. The expression of Smed-tlx-1 is higher during fed state than during fasting. Smed-tlx-1 down-regulation by RNA interference affects the ability of the animals to maintain body plan and induces defects of brain, eyes and body shape during fasting and re-growing cycles.
Although the 18S rDNA belongs to a multigene family, all its copies are kept homogeneous by concerted evolution Dover ; Hillis and Dixon To date, there is only one well-characterized exception to this rule, the protozoan Plasmodium Gunderson et al. Here we report the 1st case of 18S rDNA polymorphism within a metazoan species.
Southern blot analysis suggested that both types of rDNA are present in the genome of this flatworm. This was confirmed through sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method and bootstrap test. Although secondary structure analysis suggests that both types are functional, only type I seems to be transcribed to RNA, as demonstrated by Northern blot analysis. The finding of different types of 18S rDNAs in a single genome stresses the need for analyzing a large number of clones whenever 18S sequences obtained by PCR amplification and cloning are being used in phylogenetic reconstruction.
Full Text Available Among the millions of invertebrate species with visual systems, the genetic basis of eye development and function is well understood only in Drosophila melanogaster.
We describe an eye transcriptome for the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Planarian photoreceptors expressed orthologs of genes required for phototransduction and microvillus structure in Drosophila and vertebrates, and optic pigment cells expressed solute transporters and melanin synthesis enzymes similar to those active in the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium.
Orthologs of several planarian eye genes, such as bestrophin-1 and Usher syndrome genes, cause eye defects in mammals when perturbed and were not previously described to have roles in invertebrate eyes. Five previously undescribed planarian eye transcription factors were required for normal eye formation during head regeneration.
Transcriptome analysis of the planarian eye identifies ovo as a specific regulator of eye regeneration. Among the millions of invertebrate species with visual systems, the genetic basis of eye development and function is well understood only in Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, a conserved, transcription-factor-encoding ovo gene was expressed from the earliest stages of eye regeneration and was required for regeneration of all cell types of the eye.