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Lower elevations are generally forested by White Spruce and Subalpine Fir. A pattern apparent in many valleys is intermittent-to-closed forest cover of White. Mean annual. BOREAL CORDILLERA ECOZONE. The mountainous portion of this ecozone includes valleys filled with glacial till and glaciofluvial sediments. Cordillera/ Boreal_Cordillera_Ecozone_(CEC).

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The smallest tides occur in the southwestern part of the Gulf of St Lawrence, where the average range is less than one metre. The Carolinian forest of south-west Ontario contains rare tree species typical of forests much farther south photo by Tim Fitzharris.

These served as gateways for the explorers and trappers that ventured into the heartland of the boreal forests and prairies to the south and east. Vegetation abundance and ground cover differs significantly throughout the area. Much of this area is covered by deposits of glacial moraine. Frost cordiklera occur at any time and the average temperature remains below freezing for seven to 11 months each year.

The forest belt where Englemann spruce and subalpine fir are ecoozne occurs at elevations of 1,—2, m.

This region ecozonr one of the drier of the Boreal ecozones since it is influenced by continental climatic conditions.

The Boreal Plainsextending from Peace River, British Columbia, in the northwest to the southeastern corner of Manitoba are part of the boreal forest.

Boreal Cordillera

Herbs, lichens, mosses and low ground-hugging plants predominate. While it is formally part of the Arctic Ocean, it has a permanent cover of ice. After the Pacific Maritime, this ecozone has the highest volume cordilleea standing timber.

Some moose are seen but they tend to hug the southern margins of this ecozone. In contrast, the mean temperature for the warmest month in Winnipeg is The Boreal Shield ecozone stretches from the eastern tip of Newfoundland to the northeastern corner of Alberta. Consequently, the areas in depressions are commonly waterlogged.


Unfortunately, the desert-like areas are where cordilelra of the main communities e. Plants with deep roots, such as trees, grow here with difficulty because the soil is boresl frozen. Although much more limited in extent, the lower Gulf Islands near Victoria and Nanaimo have the rarer Garry oak and arbutus trees. Common marine mammals are seals harp, hooded and greywhales northern bottlenose, blue, beluga, Atlantic pilot, minke and humpbackharbour porpoises and dolphins.

Sperm whales are found offshore. Just as in the Pacific Marine ecozone, it is a transitional area between polar waters and the more southerly temperate waters. Because of the danger of collisions with icebergs, sailors know these waters as “Iceberg Alley. Above the treeline, at elevations higher than 1 to 1 metres, alpine weather is the norm. Common mammals of the forested areas include the moose, wapitimule deer, bighorn sheep, beaver, cougar, grizzly and black bears, wolf, wolverine, lynx, bobcat, coyote and badger.

Agricultural lands have grown in extent but still occupy less than 10 per cent of the Boreal Plains. Long, narrow U-shaped valleys are common features of the fjord coastline.

Soils are frozen and only thaw to shallow to medium depths in the summer. Once heavily forested, the Mixedwood Plains supported a greater diversity of trees and plants than any other part of Canada.

Some materials originated from old lake-bottom deposits lacustrine and others were derived from former sea-bottom deposits.


Most birds fly south when the weather turns frigid. The proximity to the warm ocean currents has a considerable effect on moderating the temperatures throughout the year. Underlying ecozoe surface are largely horizontal layers of sedimentary rocks. The ground is typically covered by lichens, mosses, low shrubs, herbs and sedges. Relative to the rest of the country, there is little variation in mean monthly temperatures.

Boreal Cordillera Ecozone by Skye Thompson on Prezi

Natural regeneration is emphasized in the ecozone, partly to conserve genetic and structural diversity within booreal. Muskeg at Old Crow Flats photo by I. With agriculture being so extensive, many of the traditional habitats crdillera animals have been lost, and species with them. The Hudson Bay area is the exception. Lakes WinnipegManitoba and Winnipegosis are remnants of this bygone glacial lake. Essentially ice-free conditions are found in localized areas around the Bay of Fundy except for the upper reaches and along the mainland coast of Nova Scotia.


The arctic sea ice rotates in a counter-clockwise, circumpolar gyre i. This ecozone provides habitats within Canada for approximately 3, species of marine invertebratesincluding more than endemics, representing about 3.

Precipitation is estimated to be only — mm per year. In the global circumpolar setting, this ecozone constitutes the largest arctic archipelago. Temperatures are cool to cold.

Little of the original forest remains today. Bird species unique to this ecozons include American black OystercatcherCalifornia and mountain quailtufted puffin and chestnut-backed chickadee.

Wildfires are not as common as in adjacent ecozones to the east although the occasional stand of Lodgepole Pine, which grows in the aftermath of fires, is not unknown. In the northwest corner of this ecozone, the mountainous terrain becomes more subdued and the valleys broaden. The total population of 3 density This ecozone consists of rolling plains and is dominated by shrubs, herbs and cordilldra species.

The ecozone is characterized by large trees, steep slopes, and old forests with long intervals between disturbances such as fire or windstorms. Humans have modified more than 90 per cent of the landscape for agricultural purposes.

This ecozone is generally unproductive for commercial forestry. The Taiga Plains are located mainly on the western side of the Northwest Territories. Winters are the reverse.