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First Chapter. Basically, the Natyashastra documents the history behind the development of the arts in India; it is a theater and dance treatise of national. Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. Book: Natya Shastra (with English Translations) Author: Bharat Muni Translator: Manomohan Ghosh M.A., Ph.D. Published by: Asiatic Society.

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These are not conveyed directly to the audiences, but are portrayed through their causes and effects.

Natya Shastra

Natyathe art of theatre including dancewas the work of God Brahma, the creator, who was asked to give mankind a fifth Vedawhich, unlike the four earlier Vedas, could be understood by everyone, even those who did not know Sanskrit i. External evidence gives us a clue that the Sanskrit work was available to Mahakavi Kalidasa, as he refers to its author in his lyrical work Vikramorvasi.

The Nattiyam comprises 36 chapters and is possibly the creation of more than one scholar. They should express their reactions either by clapping their hands, or by laughing louder or by uttering exclamations as the occasion demands. The general approach of the text is treat entertainment as an effect, but not the primary goal of arts.

The first chapter of the text declares that the text’s origins came after the four Vedas had been established, and yet there was lust, covetousness, wrath and jealously among human beings.

Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Natya was then taught by God Brahma to the mythic sage Bharatawho is said to have recorded this teaching in the Natyashastra.

Its chief protagonist is usually a hero, often a king or a prince, and the five stages of the play are seen from his point of view. The roots of the Natyashastra thus likely trace to the more ancient vedic traditions of integrating ritual recitation, dialogue and song in a dramatic representation of spiritual themes.

Genuine and feigned emotion Indian drama In theatre: The last one is probably is the nearest equivalent to Western spoken theatre.

It may be the work of several authors, but scholars disagree. The text dedicates significant number of verses on actor training, as did the Shastraa dramaturgy literature that arose in its wake. Lasya also indicates a performance style in which a solo performer enacts a text sung by a singer by means of gestures shadtra mime.


The audience essentially enjoys the play, but is also instructed by observing both good and bad actions, and the motivations which inspire them. The Natyashastra thus gives much space to the construction of a play. Thus Brahma created the Natya Vedawith the assistance of other gods. Just like the taste of food, states Natyashastrais determined by combination of vegetables, spices and other articles such as sugar and salt, the shaxtra tastes dominant states of a drama through expression of words, gestures and temperaments.

The document is difficult to date and Bharata’s historicity has also been doubted, some authors suggesting that it may be the work of several persons.

The Natyasastra discusses Vedic songs, and also dedicates over verses to non-Vedic songs. If the audience is mad after marring the play, they should by all means identify the reason for its failure.

Contact our editors with your feedback. Experiencing Music in World Religions. The Natyashastra defines drama in verse 6. Combined with an epic story, tending to virtue, wealth, joy and spiritual freedom, it must contain the significance of every scripture, and forward every art. Bharata refers to bhavas, the imitations of emotions that the actors perform, and the rasas emotional responses that they inspire in the audience.

Human factor or natural factor? It is attributed to the muni sage Bharata and is believed to have been written during the period between B.

Bharata Muni – Wikipedia

Dancing is closely related to drama, and like dramais a portrayal of the eight emotions. It is quite amazing to read about the place where orchestra and singers are to be seated. A detailed treatment of Sanskrit prosody makes the work interesting to poets and writers.

Most probably it preserves information and practices that for generations had already originally been conveyed orally. A man-lion Sakari Viika. According to Lewis Rowell, a professor of Music specializing on classical Indian music, the earliest Indian artistic thought included three arts, syllabic recital vadyamelos gita and dance nrtta[30] as well as two musical genre, Gandharva formal, composed, ceremonial music and Gana informal, improvised, entertainment music.

These arguments, and others, have led to the opinion that the date may lie somewhere between B. But what is really more interesting is the information that Bharata provides as to how drama and dramaturgy were brought to the mortal world.

The text contains a set of precepts on the writing and performance of dance, music and theater, and while it primarily deals with natyw, it has influenced Indian musicdance, sculpture, painting and literature as well.


The books,”Natyasashtra” by Bharata Muni and “Abinav Darpan” by Nandikeshwar are considered to be the original sources of Bharatnatyam an indian classical dance form. The artist repeats and chisels this imagery by giving bhrata concrete shape through stone, sound, line or movement.


Bharata points out that the word or text is the basis of theatre. The rasa theory has been discussed above only in simplified outlines. It has been suggested that Bharata is an acronym for the three syllables: Thus, when a dancer, with his or her hand movements, depicts, for example, the opening of a lotus flower, his or her eyes are myni to give different emphases to the gesture.

The text states that the playwright should know the bhavas inner state of being of all characters in the story, and it is these bhavas that the audience of that drama connects with. It had nxtya profound effect on most of the traditional art forms of India.

Bharata and his Natyashastra | | Asian Traditional Theatre & Dance

It includes karanas or basic dance units, four ways juni standing, 32 movements of the feet and hips, nine neck movements, seven movements for eyebrows, 36 types of gaze, natha symbolic hand gestures, 24 for one hand and 13 for both hands etc. To succeed, the artist must immerse the spectator muuni pure joy of rasa experience. The origin of the book is thus shrouded in mythology, but the work itself is indeed living reality. If it is compared with the traditional Western acting technique, the natya differs from it in one particular aspect.

For an actor who is not yet perfect, the techniques described in the Natyashastraare a means to achieve perfection, enlightenment, moksha, and run parallel to reaching this state through yoga or meditation practices. The Natyashastra introduced the theory of bhava and rasaso central to Indian aesthetics. The music theory in the Natyashastrastates Maurice Winternitz, centers around three themes — sound, rhythm and prosody applied to musical texts.