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Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. ARISTOTLE ON MELANCHOLY. Problemata xxx.i. Through what i is it that all those who have become eminent in philosophy or politics or poetry or the arts turn. The present volume contains a collection of papers on the reception of Aristotle’s Problemata, a multifaceted text asking various questions about medical.

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If therefore any one impedes one who is running and whose limbs are being vigorously 10 thrust forward, the result is that he wrenches him back at the same time as his limbs are still moving forward, and so 1 A repetition almost word for word of Bk. But he who is slightly intoxicated uses his judgement, but, owing to the wine which he has drunk, he uses it amiss, and so is troublesome in his cups.

This is more the case on a convex than on a straight surface, and more on a straight than on a concave ; for our body assumes curved rather than straight lines, and in such circumstances concave surfaces give more points of contact than flat 35 surfaces.

Moreover unmixed wine concocts everything else as well as itself. This is clear from an observation of the whole vegetable and animal world. All this is more likely to occur in the case of one who is 5 both lustful and effeminate.

Astringency and bitterness and unpleasant odour are characteristic of drugs, because a drug is the 1 i. The result is that, first, ophthalmia occurs when the excretion in the region of the head liquefies, and, secondly, fever ensues. Why is it that sweet wine and unmixed wine and mead 4 12 if drunk from time to time during a drinking bout make men more sober?

Walking in cold weather makes the flesh more solid and causes a great desire for food ; for it engenders an increase of heat in the inner parts and, since 25 they become less liable to be affected by the cold, it cleanses the inner region by increasing the heat there, while it makes the flesh firm, since it cannot prevail over the whole of it. Aristotle’s Problemata in Different Times and Tongues.

That there are numerous pores extending outwards is shown by the presence of the hair.

The same subject is treated in chapter 23 ; the source of both chapters is Theoph. If so, the cold water thickens and hardens the moisture, while the hot water causes it to evaporate and enables the vapour to escape by rarefying the flesh. Nature and the Disciplines in Renaissance Europep. For that which problemwta remains stationary putrefies standing water, for exampleand that which putrefies causes disease ; but that which is rejected passes away before it becomes corrupt.

On even ground, on the other hand, the similarity of position continues uninterruptedly and gives the limbs no rest, but helps to make the movement continuous.

But because the intervening time, during which the vision comes into 10 contact with and passes away from the object seen, is imperceptible, the moment during which it has been in contact and passed away seems to problemaat one and the same ; and so when several glances come into contact with the same object at the same time, the objects seen appear to be 1 i.

Or 15 is it pgoblemata in all probability there is always something given off from the body, but it is not apparent because there is nothing with which it can come into contact and probldmata which its escape can problrmata arrested? You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. The Drinking of Wine and Drunkenness.



Those then who are chilled tremble because the heat in them is extinguished by the cold. Why should the flesh be made rare rather than dense in order to promote health?

Is it 25 because the purgative effect is not due to these qualities but to the fact problematx they are unconcocted? For as blasts of wind coming from an opposite direction trouble the eyes, so too the quicker a man drives or runs the more does the air deal a gentle blow, and this causes the eyes to water, because the ducts of the eye are rarefied by the blow ; for every blow has the effect either of cleaving or crushing. Now barley-gruel has these qualities ; for, because it is moist rather than substantial, it gives nourishment which 10 is small in bulk and at the same time has a cooling effect.

Arietotle it because they are near to the nourishment? Problrmata if the distance is short, no fatigue is caused on flat ground by 25 long-continued motion ; whereas over hilly ground the violent change to an opposite kind of movement, sometimes uphill and sometimes down, gives rise to fatigue.

This, therefore, dissolves the humours into vapour. Is it because, while we are moving in the act of running, we set in motion a stream of air continuous proglemata our bodies, and this is breath?

Therefore some of those who aristotls naturally of a melancholic temperament become entirely enervated as the result of a drunken debauch. IO Why arstotle it that to those who are drunk one thing at which they are looking sometimes appears to be many? Their heat is weak arixtotle the matter in which it is still contained is itself weak ; like a fire aristotpe by reeds, which, 30 because its material is weak, is weaker than a wood-fire.

Is it because fatigue is caused by the crushing and pressure and weariness of the bones, and this can be caused either by some external or by some internal agency, and in the latter 15 case from one of two causes, either because the flesh over reaches its own strength, or because one bodily constituent mingles in a large quantity with the rest of the body and does not keep to its proper place, as happens with the excretions? His moistness then creates an abundance of semen, while his heat creates a natural condition favourable to it ; for the semen must be moist and hot as long as it is kept in the body.

For the arishotle must be got rid of by heat which will warm the body, and olive-oil contains heat. Prlblemata condition is sometimes the result of habit ; for men take a pleasure in whatever they are accustomed to do and emit the semen accordingly.

Wherefore also the semen of some men who emit a large quantity of excretion 3 is said to smell of the water in which fish have probblemata washed. In the latter case they prevent the moisture from passing through into the semen.

His nonsense books, mo …. Now wine has the effect of repression ; 1 while water is light and not un pleasant, and, therefore, being light 2 it quickly penetrates downwards, but, not being unpleasant, it does not cause heartburn. Those too who run naked in the summer have a healthier colour than those who wear garments; for just as those 35 who live in regions open to the air have a better colour than those who live in a stifling atmosphere, 2 so too a man, when he is as it were in a well-aired condition, acquires a better colour than when he is stifled and surrounded by consider able heat, wristotle he is more likely to be when he runs clothed.


For fervent inflammation is set up when certain parts aristotlr the body ] are moist, and inflammation, being due to an excess of heat, engenders fevers. Why is it that, though the sun heats us more if we wear 37 no clothing, yet we perspire 7 more freely when we are 1 i. A further result of the humours being drawn downwards and expelled is that breath is thereby carried down into the body, and it is only from there that breath can be carried from the wine into the 15 head and cause stupor and headache.

Is it because it is 30 the presence of anything in proper proportions which produces each required effect, and so, if it produces this effect, its problmata in greater quantity will not produce a greater effect, or will rather produce the contrary effect, for it is because a thing is proportionate 6 that it produces aristolte certain effect?

This then is an external disturbance, while that caused by wine is internal ; but there is no real difference, the effect being the same whatever the cause of the disturbance. The result will be that the object seen appears not to be at rest, and more so if it is at a distance for it has less hold upon the vision when the latter is extended to a distance ; and this near 15 movement 4 causes a still greater variation at the farthest point to which the eye reaches ; and if the vision is moved violently and unevenly 5 up and down, it has still less hold upon the distant object.

And 4 why do those who drink from 1 This doctrine is quoted as Aristotelian by Plutarch, Quaest. Is it not clear that this happens because the aristitle leaves them? Another reason is the fact that they are cooled by the wine aristotke which is also a reason why apoplectic seizures and torpidity very readily occur after drinking.

As soon, therefore, as they begin to run they respire ; and so the respiration taking place at equal intervals, because it 5 is measured out by a uniform movement, creates a rhythm.

Project MUSE – Aristotle’s Problemata in Different Times and Tongues

Further, just as a varied diet is unhealthy for the concoc tion 3 is then disturbed and not uniformso those who change their drinking-water are using a varied diet in what they drink ; and liquid nourishment has more effect than dry food because it is greater in bulk and because the moisture from the foods themselves adistotle nourishment. Consequently the nature of the heat 3 which carries us along does not undergo any 35 strain when we are going down hill, but has to bear a con tinual burden when we raistotle walking up hill ; and so it grows exceedingly hot by movement of this kind and causes more profuse perspiration and obstructs the breath.

For it is engendered either in or close to it ; and therefore it is difficult to get rid 10 of it in any other way. The perspiration then comes not from pronlemata the lower parts of the body but from the head ; and so one perspires most readily and freely on the forehead, for it is the first thing below the top of the head, and moisture flows down and not up.