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It has sometimes been erroneously compared to the fief of medieval Europe. The iqṭāʿ system was established in the 9th century ad to relieve the state treasury. The iqtadari was a unique type of land distribution and administrative system evolved during the Sultanate per~od. Under the system, the whole. Meaning of the Iqta system: ‘Iqta’ is an Arabic word denoting a sort of administrative regional unit. It is usually considered equivalent to a province. Initially the.

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In this period, there ssytem still no method of assessing the revenue to be collected. On the other hand, the holders of the small Iqtas were the small troops holders who had no administrative responsibilities. The lack of sources for the Saiyyid dynasty leads to our complete lack of information regarding the iqta system under them. Iqtaa bin Tughlaq followed a drastic policy of centralization which was necessary to enhance the territory and revenue of the sultanate.

The Iqtadar on the other hand, was reduced to being a mere revenue collector, though in no way was the subordinate to the Amir. In return, when syztem central government called them for service or inspection, they had to be present with horses and arms.

It means that the grant of iqta did not imply a right to the land. The muqtis can’t hold any further claims on them. Keep Exploring Britannica English language. The Governments in those times made all attempts to increase the revenue by collecting taxes as per those in Islamic nations.


The muqtis can’t hold any further claims on them. The functioning and administration remained basically the same as it had existed during the pre-Turkish phase.

Muktis or lOalis were responsible for law and order and collection of taxes in their iqtas or provinces. Islam and other religions History of taxation Abolished taxes Taxation in Islam. There were two kinds of Iqtas viz. Iqtas were given for exceptional jqta service or loyalty and were, unlike the original, usually hereditary.

Suggest ways for better implementation of the Act? Discover some of the most interesting and trending topics of Their accounts were checked by the systek auditors of the dilOan-i-lOizarat. There was also an official called katwal at the shiq level.

He was also the commander-in-chief of the military forces. Irfan Habib has chosen to see the history of Delhi through the administration of Iqta.

Administration of India under the Delhi Sultanate

He also dissolved the Council of Forty – Chahalgani, a form of sharing sysyem between the highest nobles and the king. The muqti was thus a tax collector and army paymaster rolled into one.

The sultans were head of state, not religion, but their duty was to observe the Shariat in matters of state. Newer Post Older Post Home. You can help by adding to it. Each shiq was divided into a number of parganas, groups of hundred villages.

Administration of India under the Delhi Sultanate

Religious matters and endowments were dealt with by the diwan-i-rasalat headed by sadr-us sudur. Contrary to most other forms of Iqta, it was hereditary, but the land was divided when there were more sons sysem age. The Ghurid conquest of North India heralding the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate also marked a new process of centralization.


The conquest of Mohammad Ghori and establishment of the Sultanate brought major changes in the land revenue system in India. They united the Amirs of Persia and reorganized their land into Iqtas, whose borders remained largely similar to the predecessor states.

Iqta System

The next important department was sustem headed by ariz-i-mumalik, who was responsible for the recruitment, payment and inspection of troops. Under the system, the whole empire was divided into several large and small tracts of land, called the iqtas, which were assigned to nobles, officers and soldiers for the purpose of administration and revenue collection.

Systrm sultan was the chief law-giver and the final court of appeal. The provinces were mostly military fiefs entrusted to the charge of nobles. Thank You for Your Contribution! In the 13 th c, the muqtis were commissioned to take charge not of a local territorial unit but a local situation.