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Hallervorden-Spatz disease now more commonly known as Pantothenate kinase -associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare autosomal. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 1 (NBIA1), also called Hallervorden–Spatz syndrome, is a degenerative disease of the. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, is a rare, inherited neurological movement disorder.

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Classical PKAN develops in the first ten years of life average age for developing symptoms is three and a half years. Identifying your triggers can take some time and self-reflection. HSD generally develops in childhood. Neuroprotection by a novel brain permeable iron chelator, VK, against 6-hydrodopamine lesion in rats.

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – Wikipedia

The symptoms and hallervoorden of fucosidosis are highly variable and the disorder represents a disease spectrum in which individuals with spaz cases have been known to live into the third or fourth decades. Intellectual testing may be hampered by the movement disorder; therefore, newer methods of studying intelligence are necessary to determine if there are any cognitive features of this condition.

To access free multiple choice questions on this topic, click here. The parents of an afflicted child must both be heterozygous carriers for the disease and therefore must carry one mutant allele.

However, the disease onset has been reported in all age groups including infancy and adulthood. Most recently Pellecchia et al. Botulinum toxin for treatment of jaw opening dystonia in Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome. Fucosidosis is a rare genetic disorder characterized by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-fucosidase, which is required to break down metabolize certain complex compounds e.


Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging. PKAN affects males and females in equal numbers. Sisease a precursor of pantetheine has been studied and shown to be effective in hallevrorden mouse and in a fruit fly model of the disease. Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis.

Hallervorden-Spatz disease

Encephalitis Viral encephalitis Herpesviral encephalitis Limbic encephalitis Encephalitis lethargica Cavernous sinus thrombosis Brain abscess Amoebic. Mutations result in an autosomal recessive inborn error of coenzyme A metabolism with resultant deficiency of pantothenate kinase may lead to accretion of cysteine and cysteine-containing compounds in the basal ganglia. Case Rep Neurol Med. Physical therapy can help prevent and reduce muscle rigidity.

Degenerative SA Friedreich’s ataxia Ataxia-telangiectasia. These individuals face significant speech deficits as well as psychiatric and behavioral disturbances.

Recessive genetic disorders occur when an individual inherits two copies of an abnormal diseaxe for the same trait, one from each parent. Homozygosity mapping of Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome to chromosome 20p The exact etiology of HSD is not known.

Treat excessive drooling with a medication such as methscopolamine bromide. PANK2 encodes a 1. G mutation of the PANK2 gene. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Machado-Joseph disease is a rare inherited disorder affecting the central nervous system that is characterized by the slow degeneration of certain areas of the brain. Deficiency of PANK2 may lead to accumulation of cysteine and cysteine-containing compounds in the basal ganglia.

Nil Conflict of Interest: Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www. However, medical advances have increased life expectancy.

Rare Disease Database

Deep brain stimulation improves quality of life in pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Calcification in the basal ganglia in the absence of any atrophy has also been described. Genetics spazt pathophysiology of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation NBIA. Click here to view as Video 1 Click here to view. Migraine Familial hemiplegic Cluster Tension.


Also, seizure disorders are more common among non-PKAN individuals. Deep brain stimulation as a mode of treatment of early onset pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.

Anesthetic management for two-stage computer-assisted, stereotactic thalamotomy in a child with Hallervorden-Spatz disease. The classic presentation is in the late part of the first decade or the early part of the second decade, when the individual is between ages 7 years and 15 years. The disease can be familial or sporadic. Retrieved November 7, The onset, severity and specific physical findings vary depending upon the specific type of neuroacanthocytosis present.

Microscopically marked neuroaxonal and myelin degeneration is a distinctive pathologic feature of PKAN.

The sptz age for developing symptoms is 13 years. Symptoms dominating the clinical picture include rigidity of extremities, slowness of movement, dystonia, choreoathetosis, and tremor.

First scientific workshop on Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome: These five women don’t make it look easy. Autopsies revealed brown discolorations in different areas of the brain particularly of interest were the globus pallidus and substantia nigra regions. Houlden Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 15th ed. Current state of knowledge in Chorea-Acanthocytosis as core Neuroacanthocytosis zpatz.

Ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy is also appropriate.